psych notes personality

Two types of narcissism:
Grandiose narcissism is characterized by arrogance, extraversion, immodesty, and aggressiveness;
Vulnerable narcissism is characterized by hidden feelings of inferiority, introversion, neuroticism, and a need for recognition

(I still don’t know why we are talking about this for so long)

Psychodynamic Perspectives - focus on unconscious mental forces (how on earth do you get it then)


  • lengthy verbal interactions with patients (sounds like talking therapy)
  • attempts to explain personality by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences (makes sense), unconscious conflicts (?what the hell is this), and sexual urges (men…)
  • Individuals are not masters of their own minds, destinies, which offended the conservative people of his time

algorithm 一样的consciousness

  • conscious (contact with the outside world) - UI
  • ego: reality principle secondary-process thinking (compiler)
  • preconscious: material just beneath the surface of awareness (retrievable data)
  • ID: pleasure principle, primary-process thinking (底层代码/low-level code)
  • superego: moral imperitives (algorithms)
  • unconscious: difficult to retrieve material, well below the surface of awareness (data structure for me)

(I think Freud is basically describing a Catholic homosexual man who probably works for the church)

What is his sexuality… (bisexual for sure)

  • id - primitive, instinctive component of personality - demand immediate gratification of its urges
  • ego - reality principle, seek to delay gratification until ddesired outcome
  • superego - moral component that recommends right and wrong

Freud’s model of personality dynamics

I think it’s unnecessarily abstract.

  • Repression (e.g coping mechanisms for PTSD) keep disressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconsciousness (masking)
  • projection (sheer human stupidity) Attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
  • displacement (worse human stupidity) Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute source

I think I should not do clinical psych anymore… This is STUPID

Defense Mechanisms

  • Reaction formation: behave the opposite of one’s feelings
  • Regression: reversion to immature patterns of behavior
  • rationalization: create false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior (i love this one)
  • Identification: Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group (e.g An insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his self-esteem.) – I love this example

Psychosexual stages of development

  • early years of life are extremely influential in our development (I’m getting a sense that if you are in a new field, you should make up as much stuff as possible so that some of them might be true)
  • Each stage is characterized by a primary erogenous zone
  • Fixation


  • Unconscious mind revealed (mine tells me I need therapy)
  • Manifest content is actual dream images
  • Latent content is unconscious thoughts, feelings and wishes behind manifest content (time to be a fortune teller)

Sources of manifest content

  • sensory stimulation from external environment
  • Current concerns of waking life

(So Freud is one of the first therapists, but a very shitty one)

Assessment from the Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • Projective techniques
    • people respond to ambiguous stimuli e.g RORSCHACH TEST
    • ambiguity allows for projection and subsequent assessment
    • Freud use many sexual/aggressive images (infinite loop)
    • I think this is for kids

Psychoanalysis therapy:

  • it does work well
  • but it’s hard to define “successful outcome”

Behavioria Perspective


  • free will is an illusion (yes)
  • Determinism: behavior determined by environmentla stimuli
    • personality is a collection of response tendencies tied to stimulus situations.
    • Operant conditioning shapes human responses
  • Social reinforcement: by social interaction, hugs, smiles, etc
  • Self-reinforcement
  • You react to your own behavior with approval or disapproval similar to how others do (so we judge everyone)

I’m too tired to think

Behavioral Perspectives

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (let’s see what this old white man has come up with)

  • social cognitive theory agrees with behaviorism that personality is shaped through learning
  • people learn to maximize favorable outcomes
  • Observational learning - occurs when the response is influenced by the observation of others


  • Social learning view: a function of rewards and punishments from parents, teachers, media, etc

It ignores that people will act differently in different situations…


Walter Mschel focused attention on the extent to which situational factors govern behavior

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